Publications

References to Dynamics Studies
by Dave Fritts
(page periodically updated)

This page presents a compilation of papers (published, in press, and submitted) by Dave Fritts
and colleagues addressing gravity wave sources and propagation, instability and breaking, and wave-wave
and wave-mean flow interactions using numerical, theoretical, and observational techniques. Also listed
are additional papers describing studies of Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability and turbulence dynamics
using our various 3D models, observational and modeling studies of tidal and planetary wave motions,
and influences of coupling of neutral motions into the ionosphere. More recent papers are available as pdf files.
Copies of others may be obtained by emailing Dave at dave@gats-inc.com. Dave's resume may be viewed
at http://isihighlycited.com.

For links to all modeling studies and measurement programs
by Dave and his research colleagues,
see Dave's Home Page



To see our more recent papers, select the year you wish to view.

1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

To see our recent turbulence and dynamics movies, select from below.


Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability Gravity Wave Breaking



Meteor Crater Simulations GW - Fine Structure Interactions




Results of our recent field experiments are listed here:

Spread F Experiment(SpreadFEx) MaCWAVE



Complete Publications List:

Abdu, M. A., E. A. Kherani, I. S. Batista, E. R. de Paula, D. C. Fritts, 2009: An evaluation of the ESF/bubble
irregularity growth conditions under gravity wave influences based on observational data from the SpreadFEx
campaign, Ann. Geophys., xx, SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 2607-2622. ******** Paper.pdf *********

Andreassen, O., P. O. Hvidsten, D. C. Fritts, and S. Arendt, 1998: Vorticity dynamics in a breaking
gravity wave, 1. Initial instability evolution, J. Fluid Mech, 367, 27-46.

Andreassen, O., C.-E. Wasberg, D. C. Fritts, and J. R. Isler, 1994: Gravity wave breaking in two and
three dimensions, 1. Model description and comparison of two-dimensional evolutions,
Geophys. Res., 99, 8095-8108.

Arendt, S., and D. C. Fritts, 1998: The instability of a vortex tube in a weak external shear and strain ,
Phys. Fluids, 10, 530-532.

Arendt, S. A., and D. C. Fritts, 2000: Acoustic radiation by ocean surface waves, J. Fluid Mech., 415,
1-21.

Arendt, S., D. C. Fritts, and O. Andreassen, 1997: The initial value problem for Kelvin vortex waves,
J. Fluid Mech., 344, 181-212.

Arendt, S., D. C. Fritts, and O. Andreassen, 1998: Kelvin twist waves in the transition to turbulence,
Euro. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 17, 595-604.

Bageston, J. V., C. M. Wrasse, P. P. Batista, R. E. Hibbins, D. C. Fritts, D. Gobbi, and V. F. Andrioli, 2011:
Observation of a mesospheric bore in a thermal-Doppler duct over King George Island, Antarctica,
J. Chem. Phys., 11, 12137-12147, www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/12137/2011, doi:10.5194/acp-11-12137-2011.

Bageston, J. V., C. M. Wrasse, R. E. Hibbins, P. P. Batista, D. Gobbi, H. Takahashi, D. C. Fritts,V. F. Andrioli,
J. Fechine, and C. M. Denardini, 2011: Case Study of a mesospheric wall event over Ferraz Station,
Antarctica (62S), Ann. Geophys., 29, 209-219, doi:10.5194/angeo-29-209-2011. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Balsley, B. B., W. L. Ecklund, and D. C. Fritts, 1983: Mesospheric radar echoes at Poker Flat, Alaska:
Evidence for seasonally dependent generation mechanisms, Radio Sci.,40, 1053-1058.

Balsley, B. B., W. L. Ecklund, and D. C. Fritts, 1983: VHF echoes from the high-latitude mesosphere
and lower thermosphere: Observations and interpretations, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2451-2466.

Balsley, B. B., D. C. Fritts, R. G. Freligh, M. Jones, S. L. Vadas, and R. Coulter, 2002: Up-gully flow
in the Great Plains region: A mechanism for perturbing the nighttime lower atmosphere?, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20 (19), 10.1029/2002GL015435. ********** file.PDF **********

Baumgaertner, A. J. G., A. J. McDonald, R. E. Hibbins, D. C. Fritts, D. J. Murphy, and
R. A. Vincent, 2008: Short-period planetary waves in the Antarctic middle atmosphere,
J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 70 (10), 1336-1360. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Becker, E., and D. C. Fritts, 2006: Enhanced gravity-wave activity and interhemispheric coupling
during the McWAVE/MIDAS northern summer program 2002, Ann. Geophys.,
SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1175, 24, 1175-1188. *********** Paper.pdf ***********

Bellaire, P., C.-Y. She, and D. C. Fritts, 2000: Laser instrument probes the lower boundary of the
ionosphere, AFOSR Research Highlights, Sept./Oct., 1-2.
Blix, T. A., E. V. Thrane, D. C. Fritts, U. von Zahn, F.-J. Luebken, W. Hillert, S. P. Blood, J. D.
Mitchell, G. A. Kokin, and S. V. Pakhomov, 1990: Small-scale structure observed in-situ during
MAC/EPSILON, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 52, 835-854.

Blumen, W., R. Banta, S. P. Burns, D. C. Fritts, R. Newsom, G. S. Poulos, and J. Sun, 2001:
Turbulence statistics of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow event observed in the nighttime boundary
layer during the CASES-99 field program, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 34, 189-204.

Burrage, M. D., W. R. Skinner, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, A. H. Manson,
S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, C. McLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G.
Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, and R. A. Vincent, 1996: Validation of mesosphere and lower
thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS, J. Geophys. Res., 101,
10,365-10,392.

Chang,. L., S. Palo, M. Hagan, J. Richter, R. Garcia, D. Riggin, and D. Fritts, 2008: Structure of the migrating tide
in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), Adv. Space. Res., 41 (9), 1398-1407,
doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.03.035.
Coy, L., and D. C. Fritts, 1988: Gravity wave heat fluxes: A Lagrangian approach, J. Atmos. Sci., 45,
1770-1780.

Coy, L., D. C. Fritts, and J. Weinstock, 1986: The Stokes drift due to vertically propagating internal
gravity waves in a compressible atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2636-2643.

Deng, W., J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, D. Kuerschner, A. H.
Manson, C. E. Meek, D. Murphy, T. Nakamura, S. E. Palo, D. M. Riggin, R. G. Roble, R.
Schminder, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, and Q. Zhou, 1997: Coordinated global radar
observations of tidal and planetary waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere durng
January 20- 30, 1993, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7307-7318.

Diettrich, J., G. J. Nott, P. J. Espy, G.R. Swenson, X. Chu, M. J. Taylor, D. M. Riggin, and D.C. Fritts,
2005: High frequency atmospheric gravity-wave properties using Fe-lidar and OH-imager observations,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09801, doi:10.1029/2004GL021944.

Dunkerton, T. J., and D. C. Fritts, 1984: Transient gravity wave-critical level interaction. Part I:
Convective adjustment and the mean zonal acceleration, J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 992-1007.

Espy, P. J., R. E. Hibbins, G. O. L. Jones, D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2003: Rapid, large-scale
temperature changes in the polar mesosphere and their relationship to meridional flows,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1240, doi:10.1029/2002GL016452.
Espy, P. J., R. E. Hibbins, D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2005: Mesospheric planetary waves over Antarctica
during 2002, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21804, doi:10.1029/2005GL023886. ***** Paper.pdf *****

Espy, P. J., R. E. Hibbins, G. R. Swenson, J. Tang, M. J. Taylor, D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2006: Regional
variations of mesospheric gravity wave momentum fluxes over Antarctica, Ann. Geophys., 24, SRef-ID:
1432-0576/ag/2006-24-81, 81-88. *********** Paper.pdf ************



Fechine, J., C. M. Wrasse, H. Takahashi, A. F. Medeiros, P.P.Batista, B.R.Clemesha, L.M. Lima, D. Fritts, B. Laughman,
M. J. Taylor, P. D. Pautet, M. G. Mlynczak, and J. M. Russell, 2009: Mesospheric bore event during SpreadFEx
campaign, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 1399-1406. ******** Paper.pdf *********

Forbes, J. M., M. Kilpatrick, D. Fritts, A. H. Manson, and R. A. Vincent, 1997: Zonal mean and tidal
dynamics from space: an empirical examination of aliasing and sampling issues, Ann. Geophys.,
15, 1158-1164.

Franke, P. M., S. Mahmoud, K. Raizada, K. Wan, D. C. Fritts, T. Lund, and J. Werne, 2011: Computation of
clear-air radar backscatter from numerical simulations of turbulence: 1. Numerical methods and evaluation of biases,
J. Geophys. Res., 116, D21101, doi:10.1029/2011JD015895. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Fritts, D. C., 1978: The nonlinear gravity wave-critical level interaction, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 397-413.

Fritts, D. C., 1979: The excitation of radiating waves and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities by the gravity
wave-critical level interaction, J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 13-23.

Fritts, D. C., 1980: Simple stability limits for vertically propagating unstable modes in a tanh(z)
velocity profile with a rigid lower boundary, J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 1642-1648.

Fritts, D. C., 1982: Shear excitation of atmospheric gravity waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1936-1952.

Fritts, D. C., 1982: The transient critical-level interaction in a Boussinesq fluid, J. Geophys. Res., 87,
7997-8016.

Fritts, D. C., 1984: Shear excitation of atmospheric gravity waves. Part II: Nonlinear radiation from a
free shear layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 524-537.

Fritts, D. C., 1984: Gravity wave saturation in the middle atmosphere: A review of theory and
observations, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 22, 275-308.

Fritts, D. C., 1985: A numerical study of gravity wave saturation: Nonlinear and multiple wave
effects, J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2043-2058.

Fritts, D. C., 1987: Recent progress in gravity wave saturation studies, Transport Processes in the
Middle Atmosphere, NATO Advanced Science Institute, G. Visconti and R. R. Garcia, Eds., D.
Reidel, 485 pp.

Fritts, D. C., 1989: A review of gravity wave saturation processes, effects, and variability in the middle
atmosphere, Pure Appl. Geophys., 130, 343-371.

Fritts, D. C., 1993: Gravity wave sources, variability, and lower and middle atmosphere effects,
Coupling Processes in the Lower and Middle Atmosphere, NATO Advanced Science Institute,
E. V. Thrane, T. A. Blix, and D. C. Fritts, Eds., Kluwer Academic Pubs., 410 pp.

Fritts, D. C., 1995: Gravity wave forcing and effects in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere
and Lower Thermosphere, R. M. Johnson and T. L. Killeen, Eds., Am. Geophys. Union, 356 pp.

Fritts, D. C., 1995: Gravity wave-tidal interactions in the middle atmosphere: Observations and
theory, The Upper Mesosphere and LowerThermosphere , Chapman Conference on the Upper
Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, R. M. Johnson and T. L. Killeen, Eds., Am. Geophys.
Union, 356 pp.

Fritts, D. C., 1997: Preface to the CADRE special issue, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,017-26,018.

Fritts, D. C., 2000: Errant inferences of gravity wave momentum and heat fluxes using airglow
and lidar instrumentation: Corrections and cautions, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 22,355-22,360.

Fritts, D. C., 2003: Middle Atmosphere: Gravity Waves, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences,
J. R. Holton, J. Pyle, and J. Curry, Eds., 1308-1314.

Fritts, D. C., M. A. Abdu, B. R. Batista, I. S. Batista, P. P. Batista, R. Buriti, B. R. Clemesha, T. Dautermann,
E. de Paula, B. J. Fechine, B. Fejer, D. Gobbi, J. Haase, F. Kamalabadi, B. Laughman, P. P. Lima,
H.-L. Liu, A. Medeiros, D. Pautet, D. M. Riggin, F. Sao Sabbas, J. H. A. Sobral, P. Stamus, H. Takahashi,
M. J. Taylor, S. L. Vadas, and C. Wrasse, 2009: The Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx): Program overview
and first results, Earth Planets Space, 61, 411-430. ******** Paper.pdf *********

Fritts, D. C., M. A. Abdu, B. R. Batista, I. S. Batista, P. P. Batista, R. Buriti, B. R. Clemesha, T. Dautermann,
E. de Paula, B. J. Fechine, B. Fejer, D. Gobbi, J. Haase, F. Kamalabadi, E. A. Kherani, B. Laughman,
P. P. Lima, H.-L. Liu, A. Medeiros, D. Pautet, F. Sao Sabbas, J. H. A. Sobral, P. Stamus, H. Takahashi,
M. J. Taylor, S. L. Vadas, F. Vargas, and C. Wrasse, 2009: Overview and summary of the Spread F Experiment
(SpreadFEx), Ann. Geophys., 27, 2141-2155. ******** Paper.pdf *******

Fritts, D. C., and M. J. Alexander, 2003: Gravity dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,
Rev. Geophys. , 41, 1003, doi:10.1029/2001RG000106. ****** Paper.pdf ******


Fritts, D. C., S. Arendt, and O. Andreassen, 1998: Vorticity dynamics in a breaking internal gravity
wave, 2. Vortex interactions and transition to turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 367, 47-65.

Fritts, D. C., S. Arendt, and O. Andreassen, 1999: The vorticity dynamics of instability and turbulence
in a breaking internal gravity wave, Earth Planets Space, 51, 457-473.

Fritts, D. C., C. Bizon, J. A. Werne, and C. K. Meyer, 2003: Layering accompanying turbulence
generation due to shear instability and gravity wave breaking, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D8, 8452,
doi:10.1029/2002JD002406. ********** Text.PDF , Figures.PDF **********
Fritts, D. C., R. C. Blanchard, and L. Coy, 1989: Gravity wave structure between 60 and 90 km
inferred from space shuttle reentry data, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 423-434.

Fritts, D. C., and H.-G. Chou, 1987: An investigation of the vertical wavenumber and frequency
spectra of gravity wave motions in the lower stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3610-3624.

Fritts, D. C., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1984: FA quasi-linear study of gravity wave saturation and
self-acceleeration, J. Atmos. Sci. , 41, 3271-3289.

Fritts, D. C., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1985: Fluxes of heat and constituents due to convectively unstable
gravity waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 549-556.

Fritts, D. C., P. Franke, K. Wan, T. Lund, and J. Werne, 2011: Computation of clear-air radar backscatter from
numerical simulations of turbulence, II: Backscatter moments throughout the lifecycle of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability,
J. Geophys. Res., 116, D11105, doi:10.1029/2010JD014618. ******* Paper.pdf ******

Fritts, D. C., J. F. Garten, and O. Andreassen, 1996: Wave breaking and transition to turbulence
in stratified shear flows, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 1057-1085.

Fritts, D. C., J. F. Garten, D. Riggin, R. A. Goldberg, G. Lehmacher, F. J. Schmidlin, S. McCarthy,
C. Fawcett, E. Kudeki, M. H. Hitchman, R. S. Lieberman, I. M. Reid, and R. A. Vincent, 1997:
Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED
campaign, 2. Mean and wave structures, coherence, and variability, J. Geophys. Res., 102,
26,191-26,216.

Fritts, D. C., and M. A. Geller, 1976: Viscous stabilization of gravity wave critical level flows,
J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2276-2284.

Fritts, D. C., M. A. Geller, B. B. Balsley, M. L. Chanin, I. Hirota, J. R. Holton, S. Kato, R. S. Lindzen,
M. R. Schoeberl, R. A. Vincent, and R. F. Woodman, 1984: Research status and recommendations
from the Alaska Workshop on Gravity Waves and Turbulence in the Middle Atmosphere,
Fairbanks, Alaska, 18-22 July 1983, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 65, 149-159.
Fritts, D. C., D. Goldstein, and T. Lund, 2010: High-resolution numerical studies of stable boundary layer flows
in a closed basin: Evolution of steady and oscillatory flows in an axisymmetric Arizona Meteor Crater,
J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18109, doi:10.1029/2009JD013359. ****** Paper.pdf ******

Fritts, D. C., and U.-P. Hoppe, 1995: High-resolution measurements of vertical velocity with the
EISCAT VHF radar, 2. Spectral observations and model comparisons, J. Geophys. Res., 100 ,
16,827-16,838.

Fritts, D. C., U.-P. Hoppe, and B. Inhester, 1990: A study of the vertical motion field near the
high-latitude summer mesopause during MAC/SINE, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 52, 927-938.

Fritts, D. C., and J. R. Isler, 1992: First observations of mesospheric dynamics with a partial reflection
radar in Hawaii (22 N, 160 W), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 409-412.

Fritts, D. C., and J. R. Isler, 1994: Mean motions and tidal and two-day structure and variability
in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Hawaii, J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2145-2164.

Fritts, D. C., J. R. Isler, and O. Andreassen, 1994: Gravity wave breaking in two and three
dimensions, 2. Three-dimensional evolution and instability structure, J. Geophys. Res., 99,
8109-8123.

Fritts, D. C., J. R. Isler, J. H. Hecht, R. L. Walterscheid, and O. Andreassen, 1997: Wave breaking
signatures in OH airglow and sodium densities and temperatures, Part II: Simulation of wave
and instability processes, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6669-6684.

Fritts, D. C., J. R. Isler, R. S. Lieberman, M. D. Burrage, D. R. Marsh, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and
R. A. Vincent, 1999: Two-day wave structure and mean-flow interactions observed by radar
and HRDI, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 3953-3969.

Fritts, D. C., J. R. Isler, G. E. Thomas, and O. Andreassen, 1993: Wave breaking signatures in
noctilucent clouds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2039-2042.

Fritts, D. C., and D. Janches, 2008: Dual-beam measurements of gravity wave momentum fluxes over Arecibo:
Re-evaluation of wave structure, dynamics, and momentum fluxces, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D05112,
doi:10.1029/2007JD008896. ***** Paper.doc *****

Fritts, D. C., D. Janches, and W. K. Hocking, 2010: Southern Argentina agile meteor radar (SAAMER): Initial
assessment of gravity wave momentum fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D19123, doi:10.1029/2010JD013891.
****** Paper.pdf ******


Fritts, D. C., D. Janches, H. Iimura, W. K. Hocking, N. J. Mitchell, B. Fuller, B. Vandepeer, J. Hormaechea,
C. Brunini, and H. Levato, 2010: Southern Argentina agile meteor radar (SAAMER): System design
and initial measurements of large-scale winds and tides, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18112,
doi:10.1029/2010JD013850. ****** Paper.pdf ******

Fritts, D. C., D. Janches, D. M. Riggin, R. G. Stockwell, M. P. Sulzer, and S. Gonzalez, 2006: Gravity waves
and momentum fluxes in the MLT using 430 MHz dual-beam measurements at Arecibo: 2. Frequency spectra,
momentum fluxes, and variability, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006883.
******** Paper.pdf ***********


Fritts, D. C., and W. Lu, 1993: Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum fluxes, II:
Parameterization of wave forcing and variability, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3695-3713.

Fritts, D. C., and T. Lund, 2011: Gravity wave influences in the thermosphere and ionosphere: Observations and
recent modeling, Aeronomy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Ionosphere, M. Abdu and D. Pancheva, Eds.,
Springer, 109-130. ****** Paper.pdf ******

Fritts, D. C., and Z. Luo, 1992: Gravity wave excitation by geostrophic adjustment of the jet stream,
Part 1: Two-dimensional forcing, J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 681-697.

Fritts, D. C., and Z. Luo, 1993: Gravity wave forcing of the middle atmosphere due to reduced ozone
heating during a solar eclipse, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 3011-3021.

Fritts, D. C., and Z. Luo, 1995: Dynamical and radiative forcing of the summer mesopause circulation
and thermal structure, 1. Mean Solstice conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 3119-3128.

Fritts, D. C., C. Nappo, D. M. Riggin, B. B. Balsley, W. E. Eichenger, and R. Newsom, 2003:
Analysis of ducted motions in the stable nocturnal boundary layer during CASES-99, J. Atmos.
Sci., 60, 2450-2472. ********** Text.PDF , Figures.PDF **********

Fritts, D. C., and G. D. Nastrom, 1992: Sources of mesoscale variability of gravity waves, II: Frontal,
convective, and jet stream excitation, J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 111-127.

Fritts, D. C., T. L. Palmer, O. Andreassen, and I. Lie, 1996: Evolution and breakdown of
Kelvin-Helmholtz billows in stratified compressible flows, I: Comparison of two- and
three-dimensional flows, J. Atmos. Sci. , 53, 3173-3191.

Fritts, D. C., and P. K. Rastogi, 1985: Convective and dynamical instabilities due to gravity wave
motions in the lower and middle atmosphere: Theory and observations, Radio Sci., 20, 1247-1277.

Fritts, D. C., D. M. Riggin, B. B. Balsley, and R. G. Stockwell, 1998: Recent results with an MF radar
at McMurdo, Antarctica: Characteristics and variability of motions near 12-hour period in the
mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 297-300.

Fritts, D. C., S. A. Smith, B. B. Balsley, and C. R. Philbrick, 1988: Evidence of gravity wave saturation
and local turbulence production in the summer mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the
STATE experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 7015-7025.

Fritts, D. C., S. Sun, and D.-Y. Wang, 1992: Wave-wave interactions in a compressible atmosphere, 1:
A general formulation including rotation and wind shear, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 9975-9988.

Fritts, D. C., and E. V. Thrane, 1990: Computation of the ion/neutral density ratio in the presence of
wave and chemical effects, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 52, 827-834.
Fritts, D. C., T. Tsuda, T. Sato, S. Fukao, and S. Kato, 1988: Observational evidence of a saturated
gravity wave spectrum in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1741-1759.

Fritts, D. C., T. Tsuda, T. E. VanZandt, S. A. Smith, T. Sato, S. Fukao, and S. Kato, 1990: Studies
of velocity fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using the MU radar: II. Momentum fluxes and
energy densities, J. Atmos. Sci. , 47, 51-66.

Fritts, D. C., and S. L. Vadas, 2008: Gravity wave penetration into the thermosphere: Sensitivity to solar cycle
variations and mean winds, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 26, 3841-3861.
******** Paper.pdf *******

Fritts, D. C., S. L. Vadas, and O. Andreassen, 1998: Gravity wave excitation and momentum
transport in the solar interior Implications for a residual circulation and Lithium depletion ,
Astron. Astrophys., 333, 343-361.

Fritts, D. C., S. L Vadas, D. M. Riggin, M. A. Abdu, I. S. Batista, H. Takahashi, A. Medeiros, F. Kamalabadi,
H.-L. Liu, B. J. Fejer, and M. J. Taylor, 2008b: Gravity wave and tidal influences on equatorial spread F
based on observations during the Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx), Ann. Geophys., 26, SpreadFEx
special issue, 3235-3252. ******** Paper.pdf *******

Fritts, D. C., S. L. Vadas, K. Wan, and J. A. Werne, 2006: Mean and variable forcing of the middle atmosphere
by gravity waves, J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 68, 247-265.. ******* Text.doc , Figures.doc *******

Fritts, D. C., S. A. Vadas, and Y. Yamada, 2002: An estimate of strong local gravity wave body
forcing based on OH airglow and meteor radar observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10),
10.1029/2001GL013753. ********** file.PDF **********

Fritts, D. C., and T. E. VanZandt, 1987: Effects of Doppler shifting on the frequency spectra of
atmospheric gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 9723-9732.

Fritts, D. C., and T. E. VanZandt, 1993: Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum
fluxes, I: Energy dissipation, acceleration, and constraints, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3685-3694.

Fritts, D. C., and R. A. Vincent, 1987: Mesospheric momentum flux studies at Adelaide, Australia:
Observations and a gravity wave/tidal interaction model, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 605-619.

Fritts, D. C., and D.-Y. Wang, 1991: Doppler-shifting effects on frequency spectra of gravity waves
observed near the summer mesopause at high latitude, J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 1535-1544.

Fritts, D. C., D.-Y. Wang, and R. C. Blanchard, 1993: Gravity wave and tidal structures between
60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle re-entry data, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 785-806.

Fritts, D. C., L. Wang, and R. H. Tolson, 2006: Mean and gravity wave structures and variability in the Mars upper
atmosphere inferred from MGS and MO aero-braking densities, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A12304,
doi:10.1029/2006JA011897, ******** Paper.pdf ********

Fritts, D. C., L. Wang, and J. Werne, 2009: Gravity wave - fine structure interactions: A reservoir of small-scale
and large-scale turbulence energy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19805, doi:10.1029/2009GL039501.
******** Paper.pdf **********

Fritts, D. C., L. Wang, J. Werne, T. Lund, and K. Wan, 2008: Gravity wave instability dynamics at high Reynolds
numbers, 1: Wave field evolution at large amplitudes and high frequencies, J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
******** Paper.doc, Figures.doc **********

Fritts, D. C., L. Wang, J. Werne, T. Lund, and K. Wan, 2009: Gravity wave instability dynamics at high Reynolds
numbers, 1: Wave field evolution at large amplitudes and high frequencies, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1126-1148,
doi:10.1175/2008JAS2726.1. ******** Paper.pdf **********

Fritts, D. C., L. Wang, J. Werne, T. Lund, and K. Wan, 2009: Gravity wave instability dynamics at high Reynolds
numbers, 2: Turbulence evolution, structure, and anisotropy, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1149-1171,
doi:10.1175/2008JAS2727.1. ***** Paper.pdf, Movies ****

Fritts, D. C., J. A. Werne, 2000: Turbulence dynamics due to gravity waves in the lower and middle
atmosphere, AGU Monograph, Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause, 143-159.

Fritts, D. C., B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, F. J. Schmidlin,
R. A. Goldberg, and W. Singer, 2004: Observations of extreme temperature and wind gradients
near the summer mesopause during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
31, doi:10.1029/2003GL019389. ********** file.PDF **********

Fritts, D. C., and L. Yuan, 1989: Stability analysis of inertio-gravity wave structure in the middle
atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1738-1745.

Fritts, D. C., and L. Yuan, 1989: Measurement of momentum fluxes near the summer mesopause
at Poker Flat, Alaska, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2569-2579.

Fritts, D. C., and L. Yuan, 1989: An analysis of gravity wave ducting in the atmosphere: Eckarts
resonances in thermal and Doppler ducts, J. Geophys. Res.,94, 18,455-18,466.

Fritts, D. C., L. Yuan, M. H. Hitchman, L. Coy, E. Kudeki, and R. F. Woodman, 1992: Dynamics
of the equatorial mesosphere observed using the Jicamarca MST radar during June and August
1987, J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 2353-2371.

Garten, J. F., S. Arendt, D. C. Fritts, and J. Werne, 1998: Dynamics of counter-rotating vortex pairs
in stratified and sheared environments, J. Fluid Mech., 361, 189-236.

Garten, J. F., J. Werne, D. C. Fritts, and S. Arendt, 1999: The effects of ambient stratification on the
Crow instability and subsequent vortex reconnection, ESAIM Proc., 7, Third Int'l. Workshop
on Vortex Flow and Related Numerical Methods, A. Giovannini, G.H. Cottet, Y. Gagnon,
A. Ghoniem, and E. Meiburg, Eds., volume 7.

Garten, J. F., J. Werne, D. C. Fritts, and S. Arendt, 2001: Direct numerical simulations of the Crow
instability and subsequent vortex reconnection in a stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 426, 1-45.

Gavrilov, N. M., D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2003: Medium frequency radar studies of gravity
wave seasonal variations over Hawaii (22 N, 160 W), J. Geophys. Res., 108, D20, 4655,
doi:10.1029/2002JD003131.
Gavrilov, N. M., D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2004: Interannual variations of the mean wind and gravity
wave variances in the middle atmosphere over Hawaii, J. Atmos. Solar Terres. Phys., 66, 637-645.
******** file.PDF ********


Geller, M. A., H. Tanaka, and D. C. Fritts, 1975: Production of turbulence in the vicinity of critical
levels for internal gravity waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 2125-2135.

Gibson-Wilde, D. E., J. A. Werne, D. C. Fritts, and R. J. Hill, 2000: Direct numerical simulation
of VHF radar measurements of turbulence in the mesosphere, Radio Sci., 35, 783-798.

Goldberg, R. A., M. Friedrich, G. A. Lehmacher, F. J. Schmidlin, C. L. Croskey, J. D. Mitchell,
D. C. Fritts, and W. E. Swartz, 1995: MALTED: A rocket/radar study of dynamics and
turbulencein the equatorial mesopause region, Proc. 12th ESA Symp., 113-118.
Goldberg, R. A., D. C. Fritts, H.-G. Chou, J. R. Barcus, and F. J. Schmidlin, 1988: Studies of High
Altitude Mesospheric Turbulence by Radar and Rocket, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 50 , 951.

Goldberg, R. A., D. C. Fritts, F. J. Schmidlin, B. P. Williams, C. L. Croskey, J. D. Mitchell, M. Friedrich,
J. M. Russell III, and U. Blum, 2006: The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the
polar mesosphere, Ann. Geophys., SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1159, 1159-1173.
*********** Paper.pdf ***********

Goldberg, R. A., D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, F.-J. Lubken, W. Singer, R. Latteck,
P. Hoffman, A. Muellemann, F. J. Schmidlin, and C. Mertins, 2003: The MaCWAVE/MIDAS
rocket and ground-based measurements of polar summer dynamics: Overview and mean state
structure, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019411. ******* file.PDF *******

Goldberg, R. A., D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, F. J. Schmidlin, C. L. Croskey, J. D. Mitchell, F.-J.
Luebken, M. Rapp, W. Singer, R. Latteck, T. A. Blix, M. Friedrich, S. Kirkwood, N. Mitchell,
and K. H. Fricke, 2003: The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave forcing of the polar
mesosphere during summer and winter, Proc. 11th ESA Symp. on European Rocket and Balloon
Programmes and Related Research, SP-530, St. Gallen, Switzerland, 345-350.

Goldberg, R. A., G. Lehmacher, F. J. Schmidlin, D. C. Fritts, J. D. Mitchell, C. L. Croskey, M.
Friedrich, and W. E. Swartz, 1997: Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite
during the CADRE/MALTED Campaign: 1. Programmatics and small scale fluctuations ,
J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,179-26,190.

Gourlay, M. J., S. C. Arendt, D. C. Fritts, and J. Werne, 2000: Numerical modeling of turbulent
zero momentum late wakes in density stratified fluids, 10th DoD HPC User's Group Symposium,
Albequerque, NM.

Gourlay, M. J., S. C. Arendt, D. C. Fritts, and J. Werne, 2000: Numerical modeling of turbulent
non-zero momentum late wakes in density stratified fluids, 5th Int'l. Symp. on Stratified Flows,
Vancouver, BC, 67-72.

Gourlay, M. J., S. Arendt, D. C. Fritts, and J. Werne, 2001: Numerical modeling of initially
turbulent wakeswith net momentum, Phys. Fluids, 13, 3783-3802.

Gourlay, M. J., J. Werne, and D. C. Fritts, 2001: Direct numerical simulations of initially turbulent
wakes, DoD HPC User Group Conf., Biloxi.

Grieger, N., E. M. Volodin, G. Schmitz, P. Hoffmann, A. H. Manson, D. C. Fritts, K. Igarashi, and
W. Singer, 2001: General circulation model results on migrating and nomigrating tides in the
mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Part 1: Comparison with observations, J. Atmos. Solar
Terres. Phys., 64, 897-911.

Hecht, J. H., R. L. Walterscheid, D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke,
1997: Wave breaking signatures in OH airglow and sodium densities and temperatures, Part I:
Airglow imaging, Na lidar, and MF radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6655-6668.

Hibbins R. E., P. J. Espy, M. J. Jarvis, D. M. Riggin, and D. C. Fritts, 2007: A climatology of tides and
gravity wave variance in the MLT above Rothera, Antarctica obtained by MF radar,
J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 69, 578-588. ******* Paper.pdf *******

Hibbins, R. E., J. D. Shanklin, P. J. Espy, M. J. Jarvis, D. M. Riggin, D. C. Fritts, and F.-J. Luebken, 2005:
Seasonal variations in the horizontal wind structure from 0 - 100 km above Rothera Station (67 S, 68 W),
SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2005-5-2973, 2973-2980. *********** Paper.pdf ************

Hill, R. J., D. E. Gibson-Wilde, J. A. Werne, and D. C. Fritts, 1999: Turbulence-induced fluctuations
in ionization and application to PMSE, Earth Planets Space , 51, 499-513.
Hitchman, M. H., K. W. Bywaters, D. C. Fritts, L. Coy, and E. Kudeki, 1992: Mean winds and
momentum fluxes over Jicamarca, Peru during June and August 1987, J. Atmos. Sci., 49,
2372-2383.

Hitchman, M. H., J. M. Kugi, G. A. Postel, C.-Y. Yao, V. Lynn Harvey, E. Kudeki, C. Fawcett,
D. C. Fritts, D. Riggin, and D. Ortland, 1997: Mean winds in the tropical stratosphere and
mesosphere during January 1993, March 1994, and August 1994, J. Geophys. Res., 102 ,
26,033-26,052.

Hoppe, U.-P., and D. C. Fritts, 1995: On the downward bias in vertical velocity measurements by
VHF radars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 619-622.

Hoppe, U.-P., and D. C. Fritts, 1995: High-resolution measurements of vertical velocity with the
EISCAT VHF radar, 1. Motion field characteristics and measurement biases, J. Geophys. Res.,
100, 16813-16826.

Hoppe, U.-P., D. C. Fritts, I. M. Reid, P. Czechowsky, C. M. Hall, and T. L. Hansen, 1990:
Multiple-frequency studies of the high-latitude summer mesosphere: Implications for scattering
processes, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 52, 907-926.

Iimura, H., D. C. Fritts, and D. M. Riggin, 2010: Long-term oscillations of the wind field in the
tropical mesosphere and lower thermosphere from Hawaii radar measurements, J. Geophys. Res.,
115, D09112, doi:10.1029/2009JD012509. ***** Paper.pdf *****

Iimura, H., D. C. Fritts, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffman, and W. Singer, 2011: Long-term observations
of the wind fields in the Arctic and Antarctic mesosphere and lower thermosphere at conjugate latitudes,
J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20112, doi:10.1029/2011JD016003. ******* Paper.pdf ******

Iimura, H., D. C. Fritts, Q. Wu, W. R. Skinner, and SD. E. Palo, 2010: Nonmigrating semidiurnal tide over the Arctic
determined from TIMED Doppler Interferometer wind observations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D06109,
doi:10.1029/2009JD012733. ***** Paper.pdf *****

Isler, J. R., and D. C. Fritts, 1993: Tidal variability studies using an MF radar in Hawaii,
Coupling Processes in the Lower and Middle Atmosphere, NATO Advanced Science Institute,
E. V. Thrane, T. A. Blix, and D. C. Fritts, Eds., Kluwer Academic Pubs., 410 pp.

Isler, J. R., and D. C. Fritts, 1995: Mean winds and tidal and planetary wave motions over Hawaii
during ALOHA-93, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 22, 2821-2824.

Isler, J. R., and D. C. Fritts, 1996: Gravity wave variability and interaction with lower-frequency
motions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Hawaii, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 37-48.

Isler, J. R., M. J. Taylor, and D. C. Fritts, 1997: Observational evidence of wave ducting in the
mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,301-26,313.

Isler, J. R., D. C. Fritts, and O. Andreassen, 1994: Gravity wave breaking in two and three
dimensions, 3. Vortex breakdown and transition to turbulence, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8125-8137.

Janches, D., D. C. Fritts, M. J. Nicolls, and C. J. Heinselman, 2009: Obervations of D-region structure,
atmospheric tides, and gravity waves with PFISR during active aurora, J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys.,
71, 688-696, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.08.01. ****** Paper.pdf ******

Janches, D., D. C. Fritts, D. M. Riggin, M. P. Sulzer, and S. Gonzalez, 2006: Gravity waves and momentum
fluxes in the MLT using 430 MHz dual-beam measurements at Arecibo: 1. Measurements, methods,
and gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006882. **** Paper.pdf ****

Jasperson, W. H., G. D. Nastron, and D. C. Fritts, 1990: Further study of terrain effects on the mesoscale
spectrum of atmospheric motions, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 979-987.
Jones, G. O. L., M. A. Clilverd, P. J. Espy, S. Chew, D. C. Fritts, and D. M. Riggin, 2004: An alternative
explanation of PMSE-like scatter in MF radar data, Ann. Geophys., 22 (8), 2715-2722.

Khattatov, B. V., M. A. Geller, V. A. Yudin, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke,
D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, R. McMurray, W. Singer, P. Hoffman, and
R. A. Vincent, 1996: Dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as seen by MF radars
and by the high-resolution Doppler imager/UARS, J. Geophys. Res.,101, 10,393-10,404.

Kherani, E. A., M. A. Abdu, E. R. de Paula, D. C. Fritts, J. H. A. Sobral, and F. C. de Meneses Jr., 2009:
The impact of gravity waves rising from convection in the lower atmosphere on the generation and
nonlinear evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 1657-1668.
******** Paper.pdf ********

Kherani, E. A., M. A. Abdu, D. C. Fritts, and E. R. de Paula, 2011: The acoustic gravitry wave disturbances in the equatorial
ionosphere, Aeronomy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Ionosphere, M. Abdu and D. Pancheva, Eds., Springer, 141-162.

Kumer, J. B., J. L. Mergenthaler, R. L. Rairden, A. E. Roche, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. J. Alexander,
and D. C. Fritts, 2002: Sublimb CO2 4200 nm measurements of small-scale internal gravity
wave (GW) sources and the propagation, and effects on the OH airglow, Proc. SPIE, 4539, 469.

Laughman, B., D. C. Fritts, and J. Werne, 2009: Numerical simulation of bore generation and morphology in thermal
and Doppler ducts, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 511-523. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Laughman, B., D. C., Fritts, and J. Werne, 2011: Comparisons of predicted bore evolutions by the Benjamin-Davis-Ono and
Navier-Stokes equations for idealized mesopause thermal ducts, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D02120, doi:1029/2010JD014409.
**** Paper.pdf ****

Lehmacher, G. A., C. L. Croskey, J. D. Mitchell, M. Friedrich, F.-J. Luebken, M. Rapp, E. Kudeki, and D. C.
Fritts, 2005b: Intense turbulence observed above mesospheric temperature inversion at equatorial latitude,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2005GL024345.

Lehmacher, G. A., et al., 2005: Layers in the Equatorial Mesosphere: results from rocket and radar measurements
during EQUIS II, Proc. 11th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related
Research, Sondefjord, Norway, ESA-SP 590.

Lieberman, R. S., W. A. Robinson, S. J. Franke, R. A. Vincent, J. R. Isler, D. C. Fritts, A. H. Manson,
C. E. Meek, G. J. Fraser, A. Fahrutdinova, W. Hocking, T. Thayaparan, J. MacDougall, K.
Igarashi, T. Nakamura, and T. Tsuda, 1998: HRDI observations of mean meridional winds at
solstice, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1887-1896.

Lu, W., and D. C. Fritts, 1993: Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum fluxes, III:
Gravity wave-tidal interactions, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3714-3727.

Lu, D., T. E. VanZandt, and W. L. Clark, 1984: VHF Doppler radar observations of buoyancy waves
induced by thunderstorms, J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 272-282.

Luo, Y., A. Manson, C. Meek, C. Meyer, J. Forbes, M. Burrage, D. Fritts, C. Hall, W. Hocking,
J. MacDougall, D. Riggin, and R. Vincent, 2002: The 16-day planetary waves: Multi-MF
radar observations from the arctic to the equator and comparisons with the HRDI measurements
and the GSWM modeling results, Ann. Geophys., 20, 691-709.

Luo, Z., and D. C. Fritts, 1993: Gravity wave excitation by geostrophic adjustment of the jet stream,
Part II: Three-dimensional forcing, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 104-115.

Luo, Z., D. C. Fritts, R. W. Portmann, and G. E. Thomas, 1995: Dynamical and radiative forcing
of the summer mesopause circulation and thermal structure, 2. Seasonal variations,
J. Geophys. Res., 100, 3129-3137.

Manson, A. H., C. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, C. McLandress, S. K. Avery, D. C. Fritts, C. M. Hall, W. K. Hocking,
K. Igarashi, J. W. MacDougall, Y. Murayama, D. M. Riggin, D. Thorsen, and R. A. Vincent, 2008:
Winter warmings, tides and planetary waves: Comparisons between CMAM (with interactive chemistry) and
MFR-MetO observations and data, submitted.

Manson, A., C. Meek, M. Hagan, C. Hall, W. Hocking, J. MacDougall, S. Franke, D. Riggin, D. C.
Fritts, R. Vincent, and M. Burrage, 1999: Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides
in the MLT: Multi-year MF radar observations from 2 to 70N and the GSWM,
J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 61, 809-828.

Manson, A., C. Meek, C. Hall, W. Hocking, J. MacDougall, S. Franke, K. Igarashi, D. Riggin, D. Fritts,
and R. Vincent, 1999: Gravity wave spectra, directions, and wave interactions: Global
MLT-MFR Network, Earth Planets Space, 51, 543-562.

Manson, A. H., C. E. Meek, J. Koshyk, S. Franke, D. C. Fritts, D. M. Riggin, C. M. Hall, W. K.
Hocking, J. MacDougall, K. Igarashi, and R. Vincent, 2002: Gravity wave activity and dynamical
effects in the middle atmosphere (60 - 90 km): Observations from an MF/MLT radar network, and
results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM), J. Atmos. Solar Terres. Phys, 64,
65-90.

Manson, A. H., C. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, C. McLandress, S. K. Avery, D. C. Fritts, C. M. Hall, W. K. Hocking,
K. Igarashi, J. W. MacDougall, Y. Murayama, D. M. Riggin, D. Thorsen, and R. A. Vincent, 2009:
Winter warmings, tides and planetary waves: Comparisons between CMAM (with interactive chemistry) and
MFR-MetO observations and data, Ann. Geophys., 24, 2493-2518. ****** Paper.pdf ********

Manson, A. H., C. Meek, M. Hagan, J. Koshyk, S. Franke, D. Fritts, C. Hall, W. Hocking, K. Igarashi,
J. MacDougall, D. Riggin, and R. Vincent, 2002: Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal
tides in the MLT: MF radar observations from 2 - 70 N, modelled tides (GSWM, CMAM),
Ann Geophys., 20, 661-677. ********** file.PDF **********

Manson, A. H., C. E. Meek, Y. Luo, W. K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, D. Riggin, D. C. Fritts, and
R. A. Vincent, 2003: Modulation of gravity waves by planetary waves (2 and 16 D): Observations
with the North American-Pacific MLT-MFR radar network, J. Atmos. Solar Terres. Phys., 65,
85-104.

Meek, C. E., A. H. Manson, S. J. Franke, W. Singer, P. Hoffman, R. R. Clark, T. Tsuda, T. Nakamura,
M. Tsutsumi, M. Hagan, D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, and Y. I. Portnyagin, 1996: Global study of
northern hemisphere quasi-2-day wave events in recent summers near 90 km altitude,
J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 58, 1401-1411.

Mukhtarov, P., D. Pancheva, M. Shepherd, N. J. Mitchell, D. Riggin, D. Fritts, S. Franke, P. Batista, M. Abdu,
I. Batista, B. Clemesha, and T. Kikuchi, 2005: 2-day wave coupling of the low-latitude atmosphere-
ionosphere system, J. Geophys. Res., submitted.

Murphy, D. J., T. Aso, D. C. Fritts, R. E. Hibbins, A. J. McDonald, D. M. Riggin, M. Tsutsumi, and R. A. Vincent,
2009: Source regions for the Antarctic MLT non-migrating semidiurnal tide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09805,
doi:10.1029/2008GL037064. ****** Paper.pdf *******

Murphy, D. J., J. M. Forbes, R. L. Walterscheid, M. E. Hagan, S. K. Avery, T. Aso, G. J. Fraser, M. J. Jarvis,
D. M. Riggin, D. C. Fritts, M. Tsutsumi, and R. A. Vincent, 2006: A climatology of tides in the Antacrtic
mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006803. *********** Paper.pdf ***********.

Nakamura, T., D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, T. Tsuda, and R. A. Vincent, 1997: Short-period fluctuations
of the diurnal tide observed with low-latitude MF and meteor radars during CADRE: Evidence
for gravity wave/tidal interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,225-26,238.

Nastrom, G. D., and D. C. Fritts, 1992: Sources of mesoscale variability of gravity waves, I:
Topographic excitation, J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 101-110.

Nastrom, G. D., D. C. Fritts, and K. S. Gage, 1987: An investigation of terrain effects on the mesoscale
spectrum of atmospheric motions, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3087-3096.

Nielson, K., M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, N. Mitchell, C. Beldon, W. Singer, D. C. Fritts, F. J. Schmidlin, and
R. A. Goldberg, 2006: Propagation and ducting of short-period geavity waves at high latitudes during the
MaCWAVE winter campaign, Ann. Geophys., SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1227, 1227-1243.
*********** Paper.pdf ***********

Palmer, T. L., D. C. Fritts, O. Andreassen, and I. Lie, 1994: Three-dimensional evolution of
Kelvin-Helmholtz billows in stratified compressible flow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2287-2290.

Palmer, T. L., D. C. Fritts, and O. Andreassen, 1996: Evolution and breakdown of Kelvin-Helmholtz
billows in stratified compressible flows, II: Instability structure, evolution, and energetics,
J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3192-3212.

Pancheva, D. V., P. J. Mukhtarov, N. J. Mitchell, D. C. Fritts, D. M. Riggin, H. Takahashi, P. P. Batista,
B. R. Clemesha, S. Gurubaran, and G. Ramkumar, 2008: Planetary wave coupling (5-6-day waves)
in the low-latitude atmosphere-ionosphere system, J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 70, 101-122.
******** Paper.pdf ********

Pancheva, D., Mukhtarov, P., M. G. Shepherd, N. J. Mitchell, D. C. Fritts, D. M. Riggin, S. J.Franke, P. P. Batista,
M. A. Abdu, I. S. Batista, B. R. Clemesha, and T. Kikuchi, 2006: Two-day wave coupling of the low-latitude
atmosphere-ionosphere system, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A07313, doi:10.1029/2005JA0115652.
*********** Paper.pdf ************.

Pancheva, D., P. Mukhtarov, M. Shepherd, D. Riggin, D. Fritts, S. Franke, P. Batista, and T. Kikuchi, 2005:
Global-scale response of the geomagnetic field to a 2-day wave observed in the tropical MLT region,
Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

Pautet, P.-D., M. J. Taylor, N. P. Chapagain, H. Takahashi, A. F. Medreiros, F. T. Sao Sabbas, and D. C. Fritts, 2009:
Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread F Experiment
(SpreadFEx) , Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 2371-2381. ******** Paper.pdf *********

Portnyagin, Yu., et al., 2004: Mesosphere/lower thermosphere prevailing wind model, Adv. Space Res.,
34, 1755-1762.

Poulos, G. S., W. Blumen, D. C. Fritts, J. K. Lundquist, J. Sun, S. P. Burns, C. Nappo, R. Banta,
R. Newsom, J. Cuxart, E. Terradellas, B. B. Balsley, and M. Jensen, 2002: CASES-99: A
comprehensive investigation of the stable nocturnal boundary layer, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,
83, 555-581.

Rapp, M., B. Strelnikov, A. Müllemann, F.-J. Lübken, and D. C. Fritts, 2004: Turbulence measurements
and implications for gravity wave dissipation during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL019325. ********** file.PDF **********

Riggin, D., D. C. Fritts, C. W. Fawcet, and E. Kudeki, 1995: Observations of inertia-gravity wave
motions in the stratosphere over Jicamarca, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22 (23), 3239-3242,
doi:10.1029/95GL03085.

Riggin, D., D. C. Fritts, C. W. Fawcet, E. Kudeki, and M. H. Hitchman, 1997: Radar observations of
gravity waves over Jicamarca, Peru during the CADRE campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 102,
26,263-26,281.

Riggin, D., D. C. Fritts, M. J. Jarvis, and O. L. Jones, 1999: Spatial structure of the 12-hour wave in
the Antarctic as observed by radar, Earth Planets Space, 51, 621-628.

Riggin, D., D. C. Fritts, T. Tsuda, T. Nakamura, and R. A. Vincent, 1997: Radar observations of a
3-day Kelvin wave in the equatorial mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,141-26,157.

Riggin, D., C. K. Meyer, D. C. Fritts, Y. Murayama, K. Igarashi, R. A. Vincent, W. Singer, and D. J.
Murphy, 2003: MF radar observations of semidiurnal motions in the mesosphere at high northern
and southern latitudes, J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 65, 483-493. ******** file.PDF ********

Ruggiero, F. H., J. A. Werne, T. S. Lund, D. C. Fritts, K. Wan, L. Wang, A. Mahalov, and B. Nichols, 2005:
Characterization of high altitude turbulence for Air Force platforms. Preprints, DoD High Performance
Computing Modernization Program Users Group Conference 2005, 27-30 June, Nashville, TN.

Sao Sabbas, F., V. T. Rampinelli, J. Santiago, P. Stamus, S. L. Vadas, D. C. Fritts, M. J. Taylor, P. D. Pautet,
G. D. Neto, and O. Pinot, 2009: Characteristics of sprite and gravity wave convective sources present in satellite
IR images during the SpreadFEx 2005 in Brazil, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 1279-1293.
******** Paper.pdf *********

Schoech, G. Baumgarten, Lossow, P. Hoffmann, V. Serafimovich, P. Dalin, R. Latteck, D. C. Fritts,
L. Wang, and F. J. Schmidlin, 2003: Gravity waves in the troposphere and stratosphere
during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS Summer Rocket Program, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31,
doi:10.1029/2004GL019837. ********** file.PDF **********

She, C. Y., J. D. Vance, B. P. Williams, D. A. Krueger, H. Moosmuller, D. Gibson-Wilde, and D. C.
Fritts, 2002: A Unique Sodium Lidar for Atmospheric Dynamics Studies Near the Polar
Mesopause, EOS, 83, 289-293.

She, C.-Y., B. P. Williams, P. Hoffman, R. Latteck, G. Baumgarten, J. D. Vance, J. Fiedler, P. Acott, D. C.
Fritts, U. von Zahn, and F.-J. Luebken, 2005: Observation of anti-correlation between sodium atoms
and PMSE/NLC in summer mesopause at ALOMAR, Norway (69N, 12E), J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys.,
68, 93-101, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2005.014. *********** Paper.pdf ***********

She, C.-Y., B. P. Williams, P. Hoffman, R Latteck, G. Baumgarten, J. D. Vance, J. Fielder, P. Acott,
D. C. Fritts, U. von Zahn, and F.-J. Luebken, 2006: Simultaneous observation of sodium atoms, NLC and
PMSE in the summer mesopause region above ALOMAR, Norway (69N, 12E), J. Atmos. Solar-Terres.
Phys., 68, 93-101, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2005.08.014.

Singer, W. R. Latteck, P. Hoffman, B. P. Williams, D. C. Fritts, Y. Murayama, and K. Sakanoi, 2005:
Tidal and planetary waves during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
MaCWAVE special issue, 32, L07S90, doi:10.1029/2004GL021606.

Smith, S. A., D. C. Fritts, and T. E. VanZandt, 1985: Comparison of mesospheric wind spectra with
a gravity wave model, Radio Sci., 20, 1331-1338.
Smith, S. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1985: Poker Flat MST radar and meteorological rocketsonde wind
profile comparisons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 538-540.

Smith, S. A., D. C. Fritts, and T. E. VanZandt, 1987: Evidence for a saturated spectrum of atmospheric
gravity waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1404-1410.

Suzuki, S., K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, 2007:
Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from airglow imaging measurements,
Earth Planets Space, 59, 421-428. ******* Paper.pdf *******

Takahashi, H., M. A. Abdu, M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, E. Paula, E. A. Kherani, A. F. Medeiros, C. M. Wrasse,
I. S. Batista, J. H. A. Sobral, D. Gobbi, D. Arruda, I. Paulino, S. Vadas, D. Fritts, 2010: Equatorial Ionosphere
Bottom-type Spread F observed by OI 630.0 nm airglow imaging, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L03102,
doi:10.1029/2009GL041802. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Takahashi, H., M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, A. F. Medeiros, D. Gobbi, C. M. Wrasse, J. Fechine, M. A. Abdu,
I. S. Batista, E. Paula, J.H.A. Sobral, D. Arruda, S. Vadas, F. S. Sabbas, and D. Fritts, 2009: Simultaneous
observation of ionospheric plasma bubbles and mesospheric gravity waves during the SpreadFEx Campaign,
Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27, 1477-1487. ******** Paper.pdf ********

Takahashi, H., S. L. Vadas, C. M. Wrasse, M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, A. F. Medeiros, R. A. Buriti, E. de Paula, M. A. Abdu,
I. S. Batista, I. Paulino, P. A. Stamus, and D. Fritts, 2011: Mesosphere-ionosphere coupling processes observed in the
F layer bottom-side oscillation, Aeronomy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Ionosphere, M. Abdu and D. Pancheva, Eds.,
Springer, 163-176.

Taylor, M. J., P. D. Pautet, A. F. Medeiros, R. Buriti, J. Fechine, D. C. Fritts, S. Vadas, H. Takahashi,
and F. Sao Sabbas, 2009: Characterizing mesospheric gravity waves near the magnetic equator, Brazil during
the SpreadFEx campaign, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27(2), 461-472. ****** Paper.pdf ******

Taylor, M. J., D. C. Fritts, and J. R. Isler, 1995: Determination of an unusual pattern of short period
gravity waves imaged during ALOHA-93, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2837-2840.

Thrane, E. V., T. A. Blix, U.-P. Hoppe, F.-J. Luebken, W. Hillert, G. Lehmacher, and D. C. Fritts,
1995: A study of small-scale waves and turbulence in the mesosphere using simultaneous in-situ
observations of neutral gas and plasma fluctuations, J. Atmos. Terres. Phys., 56, 1797-1808.

Tsuda, T., T. Inoue, D. C. Fritts, T. E. VanZandt, S. Kato, T. Sato, and S. Fukao, 1989: MST radar
observations of a saturated gravity wave spectrum, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2440-2447.

Vadas, S. L, and D. C. Fritts, 2001: Gravity wave radiation and mean responses to local body forces
in the atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2249-2279. ********** file.PDF **********
Vadas, S. L., and D. C. Fritts, 2002: The importance of spatial variability in the generation of
secondary gravity waves from local body forces , Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (20),
10.1029/2002GL015574. ********** file.PDF **********

Vadas, S. L., and D. C. Fritts, 2004: Thermospheric responses to gravity waves arising from
mesoscale convective complexes, J. Atmos. Solar Terres. Phys., 66, 781-804.
********** file.PDF **********

Vadas, S. L., and D. C. Fritts, 2005: Thermospheric responses to gravity waves: Influences of increasing
viscosity and thermal diffusivity, J. Geophys. Res, 110, D15103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005574.
******** Paper.pdf ***********


Vadas, S. L., and D. C. Fritts, 2006: The influence of increasing temperature and solar variability on gravity
wave structure and dissipation in the thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., TIMED special issue, 111, A10812,
doi:10.1029/2005JA011510. ******** Paper.pdf ***********

Vadas, S. L., and D. C. Fritts, 2009: Reconstruction of the gravity wave field from convective plumes via ray
tracing, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx special issue, 27(1), 147-177. ******** Paper.pdf *******

Vadas, S. L., D. C. Fritts, and M. J. Alexander 2003: Mechanism for the generation of secondary
waves in wave breaking regions, J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 194-214. ******** file.PDF ********
Vadas, S. L., M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, P. Stamus, D. C. Fritts, H.-L. Liu, F. Sao Sabbas, and V. T. Rampinelli,
P. Batista, and H. Takahashi, 2009: Convection: The likely source of the medium-scale gravity waves observed
in the OH airglow layer near Brasilia, Brazil, during the SpreadFEx campaign, Ann. Geophys., SpreadFEx
special issue, 27, 231-259. ******** Paper.pdf *******

VanZandt, T. E., and D. C. Fritts, 1989: A theory of enhanced saturation of the gravity wave
spectrum due to increases in atmospheric stability, Pure Appl. Geophys., 130, 399-420.

VanZandt, T. E., and D. C. Fritts, 1993: Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum
fluxes, Coupling Processes in the Lower and Middle Atmosphere, NATO Advanced Science
Institute, E. V. Thrane, T. A. Blix, and D. C. Fritts, Eds., Kluwer Academic Pubs., 410 pp.

VanZandt, T. E., S. A. Smith, T. Tsuda, D. C. Fritts, T. Sato, S. Fukao, and S. Kato, 1990:
Studies of velocity fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using the MU radar. Part I:
Azimuthal anisotropy, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 39-50.
Vincent, R. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1987: A climatology of gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower
thermosphere over Adelaide, Australia, J. Atmos. Sci. , 44, 748-760.

Vincent, R. A., S. Kovalam, D. C. Fritts, and J. R. Isler, 1998: Long-term MF radar observations
of solar tides in the low-latitude mesosphere: Interannual variability and comparisons with
the GSWM, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 8667-8683.

Wang, D.-Y., and D. C. Fritts, 1990: Mesospheric momentum fluxes observed by the MST radar
at Poker Flat, Alaska, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1511-1521.

Wang, D.-Y., and D. C. Fritts, 1991: Evidence of gravity wave-tidal interaction observed near
the summer mesopause at Poker Flat, Alaska, J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 572-583.

Wang, L., D. C. Fritts, and R. H. Tolson, 2006: Nonmigrating tides inferred from the Mars Odyssey and Mars Global
Surveyor aerobraking data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23201, doi:10.1029/2006GL027753.
****** Paper.pdf ******

Wang, L., D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, R. A. Goldberg, F. J. Schmidlin, and U. Blum, 2006: Gravity waves in the middle
atmosphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign, Ann. Geophys., SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1209,
1209-1226. ****** Paper.pdf *******


Werne, J.A., C. Bizon, and D. C. Fritts, 2001: Wave breaking and shear turbulence simulations
in support of the Airborne Laser, 11 th DoD HPC User Group Symposium, Biloxi, MS.

Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1998: Turbulence in stratified and sheared fluids: T3E simulations,
8th DoD HPC User Group Symposium.

Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1999: Stratified shear turbulence: Evolution and statistics,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 439-442.

Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1999: Anisotropy in stratified shear turbulence, 9th DoD HPC
User Group Symposium, Monterey, CA.

Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 2000: Structure functions in stratified shear turbulence, 10th DoD
HPC User Group Symposium, Albequerque, NM.

Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 2001: Anisotropy in a stratified shear layer, Phys. Chem. Earth, 26,
doi:10.1016/S1464-1909(01)00004-1, 263-268.

Werne, J. T. Lund, B. A. Pettersson-Reif, P. Sullivan, and D. C. Fritts, 2005: CAP Phase II
simulations for the Air Force HEL-JTO project: Atmospheric turbulence simulations
on NAVO's 3000-processor IBM P4+ and ARL's 2000-processor Intel Xeon EM64T cluster,
DoD HPCMO Conference , July. ******** Paper.pdf ***********

Whiteman, C. D., A. Muschinski, S. Zhong, D. Fritts, S. W. Hoch, M. Hahnenberger, W. Yao,
V. Hohreiter, M. Behn, Y. Cheon, C. B. Clements, T. W. Horst, W. O. J. Brown, and
S. P. Oncley, 2008: METCRAX, 2006 - Meteorological experiments in Arizona's Meteor Crater,
Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 89 (11), 1665-1681. ******** Paper.pdf *******

Williams, B. P., D. C. Fritts, C. Y. She, G. Baumgarten, and R. A. Goldberg , 2006: Gravity wave
propagation, tidal interaction, and instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere
during the winter 2003 MaCWAVE rocket campaign, MaCWAVE special issue of Ann. Geophys.,
SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1199, 1199-1208. ******** Paper.pdf *********

Williams, B., D. C. Fritts, J. D. Vance, C.-Y. She, T. Abe, and E. Thrane, 2006: Sodium lidar measurements
of waves and instabilities near the mesopause during the DELTA rocket campaign, 58 (9), 1131-1137.
******* Paper.pdf *******

Williams, B. P., J. Vance, C.-Y. She, D. C. Fritts, L. Wang, F. J. Schmidlin, R. A. Goldberg,
U.-P. Hoppe, W. Singer, and R. Latteck, 2004: Gravity waves in the MLT region during the
MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket Program, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31,
doi:10.1029/2004GL020049.
Yuan, L., and . C. Fritts, 1989: Influence of a mean shear on the dynamical instability of an
inertio-gravity wave, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2562-2568.

Zhou, Q. H., H. Monroy, D. C. Fritts, H. M. Ierkic, B. Isham, J. R. Isler, and S. E. Palo, 2000:
Radar observations of longitudinal variability of tidal/planetary waves and mean motions
in the tropical mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2151.