1. Li, J., E. Becker, R. L. Collins, B. P. Williams, X. Lu, First simultaneous observation of secondary and tertiary gravity waves by lidar and investigation with HIAMCM simulations (2023), Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.
  2. C. B. Kjellstrand and B. P. Williams (2023) SkyWinder: a Python package for flight control, telemetry, and image analysis, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences - Space Physics, vol. 10,
  3. Fritts, D. C., G. Baumgarten, P.-D. Pautet, J. H. Hecht, B. P. Williams, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, C. B. Kjellstrand, L. Wang, M. J. Taylor, and A. D. Miller (2023) Kelvin Helmholtz Instability “Tube & Knot” Dynamics, Part I: Expanding Observational Evidence of Occurrence and Environmental Influences, J. Atmos. Sci., 80, 2419–2437, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-22-0189.1
  4. Collins, R., J. Li, B. Williams, B. Kaifler, D. Thorsen (2023) All-Solid State Iron Resonance Lidar for Measurement of Temperature and Winds in the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, Proceedings of the 30th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2022), accepted, Springer Atmospheric Sciences.
  5. Dörnbrack, A., Eckermann, S. D., Williams, B. P., & Haggerty, J. (2022). Stratospheric Gravity Waves Excited by a Propagating Rossby Wave Train—A DEEPWAVE Case Study, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(2), 567-591.
  6. Collins, R. L., Stevens, M. H., Azeem, I., Taylor, M. J., Larsen, M. F., Williams, B. P., et al. (2021). Cloud formation from a localized water release in the upper mesosphere: Indication of rapid cooling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 126, e2019JA027285.
  7. Li, J., Collins, R., Lu, X., & Williams, B. (2021). Lidar observations of instability and estimates of vertical eddy diffusivity induced by gravity wave breaking in the Arctic mesosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD033450.
  8. Emmert, J. T., Drob, D. P., Picone, J. M., Siskind, D. E., Jones, M., Mlynczak, M. G., et al. (2021). NRLMSIS 2.0: A whole‐atmosphere empirical model of temperature and neutral species densities. Earth and Space Science, 8, e2020EA001321.
  9. Geach, C., Hanany, S., Fritts, D. C., Kaifler, B., Kaifler, N., Kjellstrand, C. B., et al. (2020). Gravity wave breaking and vortex ring formation observed by PMC Turbo. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125, e2020JD033038.
  10. Kjellstrand, C. B, G. Jones, C. Geach, B. P. Williams, D. C. Fritts, A. Miller, S. Hanany, M. Limon, J. Reimuller (2020),The PMC Turbo balloon mission to measure gravity waves and turbulence in Polar Mesospheric Clouds: Camera, telemetry, and software performance, Earth and Space Science, 7, e2020EA001238.
  11. Fritts, D. C., Kaifler, N., Kaifler, B., Geach, C., Kjellstrand, C. B., Williams, B. P., et al. (2020). Mesospheric bore evolution and instability dynamics observed in PMC Turbo imaging and Rayleigh Lidar profiling over Northeastern Canada on 13 July 2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125, e2019JD032037.
  12. Mesquita, R., Larsen, M. F., Azeem, I., Stevens, M. H., Williams, B. P., Collins, R. L., & Li, J. (2020). In‐situ observations of neutral shear instability in the statically stable high‐latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 125, e2020JA027972.
  13. Li, J., B. P. Williams, J. H. Alspach, R. L. Collins (2020), Sodium Resonance Wind-Temperature Lidar at PFRR: Initial Observations and Performance, Atmosphere, 11, 98,
  14. Fritts, D. C., Miller, A. D., Kjellstrand, C. B., Geach, C., Williams, B. P., Kaifler, B., et al. (2019). PMC Turbo: Studying gravity wave and instability dynamics in the summer mesosphere using polar mesospheric cloud imaging and profiling from a stratospheric balloon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 6423–6443.
  15. Strelnikov, B., T. Staszak, H. Asmus, I. Strelnikova, R. Latteck, M. Grygalashvyly, F.-J. Lübken, G. Baumgarten, J. Höffner, R. Wörl, J. Hedin, M. Khaplanov, J. Gumbel, M. Eberhart, S. Löhle, S. Fasoulas, M. Rapp, M. Friedrich, B. P. Williams, A. Barjatya, M. J. Taylor, and P.-D. Pautet (2019), Simultaneous in-situ measurements of small-scale structures in neutral, plasma, and atomic oxygen densities during WADIS sounding rocket project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11443–11460,
  16. Jiang, Q., J.D. Doyle, S.D. Eckermann, and B.P. Williams (2019), Stratospheric Trailing Gravity Waves from New Zealand. J. Atmos. Sci., 76, 1565–1586,
  17. Fritts, D. C., Vosper, S. B., Williams, B. P., Bossert, K., Plane, J. M. C., Taylor, M. J., et al. (2018). Large‐amplitude mountain waves in the mesosphere accompanying weak cross‐mountain flow during DEEPWAVE Research Flight RF22. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123.
  18. Bossert, K., Fritts, D. C., Heale, C. J., Eckermann, S. D., Plane, J. M. C., Snively, J. B., B. P. Williams, et al. (2018). Momentum flux spectra of a mountain wave event over New Zealand. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123.
  19. Kumar, G. K., H. Nesse-Tissøy, and B. P. Williams, A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions, JASTP, JASTP,168, 70-79, 2018,
  20. Bossert K., C. G. Kruse, C. J. Heale, D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, J. B. Snively, P.-D. Pautet, and M. J. Taylor (2017), Secondary gravity wave generation over New Zealand during the DEEPWAVE campaign, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 7834–7850,
  21. Bramberger, M., A. Dörnbrack, K. Bossert, B. Ehard, D. C. Fritts, B. Kaifler, C. Mallaun, A. Orr, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, M. J. Taylor, S. Vosper, B. P. Williams, B. Witschas, Does strong tropospheric forcing cause large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves? - A DEEPWAVE Case Study, JGR - Atmospheres, 122, 11,422–11,443,, 2017.
  22. Feng, W., B. Kaifler, D. R. Marsh, J. Hoffner, U.-P. Hoppe, B. P. Williams, J . M. C. Plane, Impacts of a sudden stratospheric warming on the mesospheric metal layers, JASTP, 162, 162-171,, 2017.
  23. Eckermann, S. D., D. Broutman, J. Ma, J. D. Doyle, P.-D. Pautet, M. J. Taylor, K. Bossert, B. P. Williams, D. C. Fritts, and R. B. Smith (2016). Dynamics of Orographic Gravity Waves Observed in the Mesosphere over the Auckland Islands during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE). J. Atmos. Sci.. 73 3855,
  24. Pautet, P.-D., M. Taylor, D. Fritts, K. Bossert, B. Williams, D. Broutman, J. Ma, S. Eckermann, and J. Doyle (2016), Large Amplitude Mesospheric Response to an Orographic Wave Generated Over the Southern Ocean Auckland Islands (50.7°S) During the DEEPWAVE Project. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2016,
  25. Fritts, D. C., R. Smith, M. Taylor, J. Doyle, S. Eckermann, A. Doernbrack, M. Rapp, B. Williams, D. Pautet, K. Bossert, N. Criddle, C. Reynolds, A. Reinecke, M. Uddstrom, M. Revell, R. Turner, B. Kaifler, J. Wagner, T. Mixa, C. Kruse, A. Nugent, C. Watson; S. Gisinger, S. Smith, J. Moore, W. Brown, J. Haggerty, A. Rockwell, G. Stossmeister, S. Williams, G. Hernandez, D. Murphy, A. Klekociuk, I. Reid, J. Ma, The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE): An Airborne and Ground-Based Exploration of Gravity Wave Propagation and Effects from their Sources throughout the Lower and Middle Atmosphere, BAMS,, 2016.
  26. Bossert, K., D. C. Fritts, D. Pautet, B. P. Williams, M. J. Taylor, Momentum Flux Estimates Accompanying Multi-Scale Gravity Waves over Mt. Cook, New Zealand on 13 July 2014 during the DEEPWAVE Campaign, JGR, 120, 9323–9337, 2015,
  27. Plane, J. M. C, R. W. Saunders, J. Hedin, J. Stegman, M. Khaplanov, J. Gumbel, K. A. Lynch, P. J. Bracikowski, L. J. Gelinas, M. Friedrich, S. Blindheim, M. Gausa, B. P. Williams, A combined rocket-borne and ground-based study of the sodium layer and charged dust in the upper mesosphere, JASTP, 118, 151-160, 2014,
  28. Bossert, K., D. C. Fritts, P.-D. Pautet, M. J. Taylor, B. P. Williams, W. R. Pendelton, Investigation of a mesospheric gravity wave ducting event using coordinated sodium lidar and Mesospheric Temperature Mapper measurements at ALOMAR, Norway (69oN). J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9765-9778, 2014, DOI: 10.1002/2014JD021460.
  29. D. C. Fritts, M. J. Taylor, K. Bossert, D. P. Pautet, and B. P. Williams, Quantifying Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes with Mesosphere Temperature Mappers and Correlative Instrumentation. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 13,583-13,603, 2014.
  30. S. Robertson, S. Dickson, M. Horanyi, Z. Sternovsky, M. Friedrich, D. Janches, L. Megner, B. P. Williams, Detection of Meteoric Smoke Particles in the Mesosphere by a Rocket-borne Mass Spectrometer, JASTP, 118, 161-179, 2013,
  31. S. Suzuki, F.-J. Luebken, G. Baumgarten, N. Kaifler, R. Eixmann, B. P. Williams, T. Nakamura, Vertical propagation of mesoscale gravity wave from the lower to the upper atmosphere, JASTP, published online,, 2013.
  32. J. Hildebrand, G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, U.-P. Hoppe, B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, and B. P. Williams, Combined wind measurements by two different lidar instruments in the Arctic middle atmosphere, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2433-2445, 2012,
  33. Plane, J., H. Oetjen, M. der Miranda, A. Sais-Lopez, M. Gausa, and B. Williams: On the sodium D line emission in the terrestrial nightglow, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 74, 181–188, 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.10.019.
  34. Raizada, S., C. A. Tepley, B. P. Williams, and R. García, Summer to winter variability in mesospheric calcium ion distribution and its dependence on Sporadic E at Arecibo, JGR, 117, doi:10.1029/2011JA016953, 2012.
  35. She, C. Y., M. Abo, J. Yue, B. P. Williams, C. Nagasawa, T. Nakamura, On mesopause region temperature and wind measurements with pseudorandom modulation continuous-wave (PMCW) lidar at 589 nm, Applied Optics, 50, 2916-2926, 2011.
  36. Dou, X., T. Li, Y. Tang, J. Yue, T. Nakaruma, X. Xue, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, Variability of gravity wave occurrence frequency and propagation direction in the upper mesosphere observed by the OH imager in Northern Colorado, JASTP, 72,457–462, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.01.002, 2010.
  37. Huang, W., X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, First Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler LIDAR, Optics Letters, 34, 1552-1554, 2009.
  38. Yue, J., C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and T. Kawahara, Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate, Optics Letters, 34, 1093-1095, 2009.
  39. Huang, W., X. Chu, B. P. Williams, S. D. Harrell, J. Wiig, and C.-Y. She, Na Double-Edge Magneto-Optic Filter for Na Lidar Profiling of Wind and Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere, Optics Letters, 34, 199-201, 2009.
  40. Strelnikova, I., M. Rapp, B. Strelnokov, G. Baumgarten, A. Brattli, K. Svenes, U.-P. Hoppe, M. Friedrich, J. Gumbel, B. P. Williams, Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results, LPMR special issue, JASTP, 71, 486-496, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011, 2009.
  41. Nesse, H., D. Heinrich, J. Stadsnes, M. Sørbø, U.-P. Hoppe, B. P. Williams, F. Honary and D. S. Evans, Upper mesospheric temperatures measured during the January 2005 Solar Proton Events, Annales Geophysicae, 26, 2515-2529, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/angeo/2008-26-2515, 2008.
  42. Heinrich, D., H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. P. Williams, U.-P. Hoppe, Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar, Annales Geophysicae, 33AM Optical Meeting Special Issue, 26, 1057-1069, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/angeo/2008-26-1057, 2008.
  43. Nesse, H., D. Heinrich, B. P. Williams, U.-P. Hoppe, J. Stadsnes, M. Rietveld, W. Singer, U. Blum, M. Sandanger, and E. Trondsen, A Case Study of a Sporadic Sodium Layer Observed by the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar, Annales Geophysicae, 33AM Optical Meeting Special Issue, 26, 1071-1081, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/angeo/2008-26-1071, 2008.
  44. Williams, B. P., J. Sherman, C. Y. She, and F. T. Berkey, Coincident extremely large sporadic sodium and sporadic E layers observed in the lower thermosphere over Colorado and Utah, Annales Geophysicae, 25, 3-8, 2007.
  45. Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors, Earth, Planets, and Space, 59, 585-599, 2007.
  46. She, C. Y., J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, Q. Wu, An all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements, Canadian Journal of Physics, 85,111-118, 2007.
  47. Williams, B. P., J. D. Vance, C.-Y. She, D. C. Fritts, T. Abe, and E. Thrane, Sodium lidar measurements of waves and instabilities near the mesopause during the Delta rocket campaign, Earth, Planets, and Space, 58, 1131-1137, 2006. (PDF)
  48. Williams, B. P., D. C. Fritts, C. Y. She, and R. A. Goldberg, Gravity wave propagation through a large semidiurnal tide and instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the winter 2003 MaCWAVE rocket campaign, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 1199-1208. SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1199, 2006. (PDF)
  49. Williams, B. P., C. Croskey, C. Y. She, J. D. Mitchell, and R. A. Goldberg, Sporadic sodium and sporadic-E layers observed during the summer 2002 MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign, Annales Geophysicae, 1257-1266. SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1257, 2006. (PDF)
  50. Nielsen, K., M. J. Taylor, P.-D. Pautet, N. Mitchell, C. Beldon, W. Singer, D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, F. J. Schmidlin, and R. A. Goldberg, Propagation and Ducting of Short-Period Gravity Waves at High Latitudes during the MaCWAVE Winter Campaign, Annales Geophysicae, 1227-1243, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1227, 2006.(PDF)
  51. Goldberg, R. A., Fritts, D. C., Schmidlin, F. J., Williams, B. P., Croskey, C. L., Mitchell, J. D., Friedrich, M., III, J. M. R., Blum, U., and Fricke, K. H., The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere, Annales Geophysicae, 1159-1173. SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1159, 2006.(PDF)
  52. Wang L., D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, R. A. Goldberg, F. J. Schmidlin, U. Blum, Gravity Waves in the Middle Atmosphere during the MaCWAVE Winter Campaign: Evidence of Mountain Wave Critical Level Encounters, Ann. Geophys., 1209-1226, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1209, 2006.(PDF)
  53. Vance, J. D., C. Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, Q. Wu, An all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements, 23rd International Laser Radar Conference Proceedings (refereed), 2006. (PDF)
  54. Yuan, T., C. Y. She, M. E. Hagan, T. Li, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, P. E. Acott, J. D. Vance, and D. Krueger, Seasonal variations of diurnal tidal-period perturbations in mesopause region temperature zonal and meridional winds above Fort Collins, CO (40.6N, 105W), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005486, 2006. (PDF)
  55. She, C. Y., B. P. Williams, P. Hoffmann, R. Latteck, G. Baumgarten, J. D. Vance, J. Fiedler, P. Acott, D. C. Fritts, F.-J. Lübken, Simultaneous observation of sodium atoms, NLC and PMSE in the summer mesopause region above ALOMAR, Norway (69N, 12E), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 93-101, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2005.08.014, 2006. (PDF)
  56. Nakamura,T., T. Fukushima, T. Tsuda, C. Y. She, B. P. Williams, D. Krueger, and W. Lyons, Simultaneous observation of dual-site airglow imagers and a sodium temperature- wind lidar, and effect of atmospheric stability on the airglow structure, Adv. Space Res., 35, 1957–1963, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.05.102, 2005. (PDF)
  57. Li T., C. Y. She, B. P. Williams, T. Yuan, R. L. Collins, L. M. Kieffaber, and A. W. Peterson, Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature/wind lidar observation of localized ripples over Northern Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13110, doi:10.1029/2004JD004885, 2005. (PDF)
  58. Singer, W., R. Latteck, P. Hoffmann, B. P. Williams, D. C. Fritts, Y. Murayama, and K. Sakanoi, Tides near the Arctic summer mesopause during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer program, Geophys. Res. Lett., L07S90, doi:10.1029/2004GL021607, 2005. (PDF)
  59. Williams, B. P., D. C. Fritts, L. Wang, C. Y. She, J. D. Vance, F. J. Schmidlin, R. A. Goldberg, A. Müllemann, and F.-J. Lübken, Gravity waves in the arctic mesosphere during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24S05, doi:10.1029/2004GL020049, 2004. (PDF)
  60. She, C. Y., T. Li, R. L. Collins, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, T. Kawahara, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, D. A. Krueger, H. Liu and M. E. Hagan, Tidal perturbations and variability in mesopause region over Fort Collins, CO (41N, 105W): continuous multi- day temperature and wind lidar observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 24, L24111, doi:10.1029/2004GL021165, 2004. (PDF)
  61. She, C. Y., T. Li, B. P. Williams, T. Yuan, and R. H. Picard, Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature/wind lidar observation of a mesopause region undular bore event over Fort Collins/Platteville, CO, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D22107, doi:10.1029/2004JD004742, 2004. (PDF)
  62. Fritts, D. C., B. P. Williams, C. Y. She, J. D. Vance, M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, F. J. Schmidlin, and R. A. Goldberg, Observations of extreme temperature and wind gradients near the summer mesopause during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24S06, doi:10.1029/2003GL019389, 2004. (PDF)
  63. Goldberg, R. A., D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, F.-J. Lubken, W. Singer, R. Latteck, P. Hoffman, A. Mullemann, F. J. Schmidlin, The MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket and ground-based measurements of polar summer dynamics: Overview and mean state structure, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24S02, doi:10.1029/2004GL019411, 2004. (PDF)
  64. She, C. Y., J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. Kawahara, T. Li, L. Xu, J. D. Vance, and D. Krueger, The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind, Geophys. Res. Lett, 30 (6), doi:10.1029/2002GL016412, 2003. (PDF)
  65. Sherman, J., B. P. Williams, T. Kawahara, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, A dynamical study of the winter mid-latitude mesopause region (80-105km) based on initial simultaneous lidar measurements of temperature and winds over Fort Collins, CO (41N, 105W), Adv. Space Res., 32, 753--758 , 2003. (PDF)
  66. Williams, B. P., M. A. White, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, Observation of a large amplitude, large scale gravity wave with convective instability in the mesopause region over Fort Collins, CO (41N, 105W), Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(17), 1850, doi:10.1029/2001GL014514, 2002. (PDF)
  67. She, C. Y., S. Chen, B. P. Williams, Z. Hu, D. A. Krueger, and M. E. Hagan, Tides in the mesopause region over Fort Collins, CO (41N, 105W) based on lidar temperature observations covering full diurnal cycles, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D18), 4350, doi:10.1029/2001JD001189, 2002. (PDF)
  68. She, C. Y., J. D. Vance, B. P. Williams, D. A. Krueger, H. Moosmuller, D. Gibson-Wilde, and D. C. Fritts, Lidar studies of atmospheric dynamics near polar mesopause, EOS, 83, 289-293, 2002. (PDF)
  69. She, C. Y., J. Sherman, J. D. Vance, T. Yuan, Z. Hu, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Evidence of solar cycle effect in the mesopause region: Observed temperatures in 1999 and 2000 at 98.5 km over Fort Collins, CO (41N, 105W), J. Atmo. Solar-Terr. Physics, 64, 1651-1657, 2002. (PDF)
  70. Melo, S. M. L., R. P. Lowe, W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor, B. P. Williams, and C. Y. She, Effects of a large mesospheric temperature enhancement on the hydroxyl rotational temperature as observed from the ground, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 30381, 2001. (PDF)
  71. Williams, B. P., C. Y. She, and R. G. Roble, Seasonal climatology of the nighttime tidal perturbation of temperature in the midlatitude mesopause region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3301-3304, 1998. (PDF)
  72. Williams, B. P. and S. Tomczyk, Magneto-optic Doppler analyzer: A new instrument to measure mesopause winds, Applied Optics, 35, 6494--6503, 1996. (PDF)